The comprehensive and multi-pronged social security programme is administered by an apex corporate body called the Employees' State Insurance Corporation. It comprises members representing vital interest groups, including, employees, employers, the Central and State Government, representatives of Parliament and medical profession. The Corporation is headed by the Union Minister of Labour, as its Chairman, whereas the Director General, appointed by the Central Government functions as its Chief Executive Officer. The broad based corporate body is, primarily, responsible for coordinated policy planning and decision making for growth, development and efficacy of the scheme. A Standing Committee, constituted from amongst the members of the Corporation, acts as an Executive Body. The Medical Benefit Council, constituted by the Central Government, is yet another Statutory Body that advises the Corporation on matters related to effective delivery of medical services to the Beneficiary Population.

The Corporation, with its Central Headquarters at New Delhi, operates through a network of 63 Regional and Sub- Regional located in various States. The administration of Medical Benefit is taken care of by the respective State Government except in case of Delhi and Noida/Greater Noida area in Uttar Pradesh where the Corporation administers medical facilities directly. The Corporation has taken over the administration of 36 ESI Hospitals in various States for developing them as ESIC Model Hospitals.